A body of knowledge to learn a scientific approach to study and identify the social issues. The scientific study of human society and social interactions. Its main goal is to understand social situations and look for repeating patterns in society. The main focus of sociology is the group, not the individual. It attempts to understand the forces that operate throughout society to mold individuals, shape their behavior, and determine social events.

A general definition of sociology is the systematic study of human society, culture, and relationships on a group level. •“Sociology employs the same general methods of investigation that are used in the natural sciences. Like the natural scientists, sociologists use the scientific method, a process by which a body of scientific knowledge is built through observation, experimentation, generalization, and verification. This is known as empiricism, where generalizations are evidence based only (Tishler, 2011)”.

Historical Background

•It has emerged as a separate field of study in Europe during 19th  century. •During the time of turmoil when existing social order was shaken by the growing industrial revolution and violent uprisings against established rulers (the American, 1765 and French, 1789 Revolutions). •New social classes of industrialists and business people emerged to challenge the rule of the feudal aristocracies. •Radical shift from tightly knitted communities to the individual household management. •Factory cities began to replace the rural estates of nobles as the centers for society at large. •Work for wages instead of exchanging their services for land and protection. •Many people were frightened by these changes and wanted to find some way of coping with the new society that led to the emergence of sociology.

Sociology and other sceince


The study of individual behavior and mental processes is part of psychology that focused on more issues such as motivation, perception, cognition, creativity, mental disorders, and personality. •It involves usage of laboratory experiments for an individual.

Psychology and sociology overlap in a subdivision of each field known as social psychology that analyze how human behavior is influenced and shaped by various social situations? •Social psychologists study such issues as how individuals in a group solve problems? •Psychology studies the individual, and sociology studies groups of individuals as well as society’s institutions.

Economics Economists have developed techniques for measuring such things as prices, supply and demand, money supplies, rates of inflation, and employment.

This study of the creation, distribution, and consumption of goods and services is known as economics. •Economists study price and availability factors, sociologists are interested in the social factors that influence a person’s economic decisions. Does peer pressure result in buying the large flashy car, or does concern about gas mileage lead to the purchase of a fuel efficient or hybrid vehicle?

Sociologist in society

•The work of journalists is also often confused with that of sociologists. It is common for journalists to write articles that examine sociological issues. •Researchers have analyzed the difference between sociology and journalism has noted that sociologists engage in the study of society with: the primary intent of sharing their work with other sociologists, not with the general public (Baker, Anderson, and Dorn, 1993). •They pay special attention to their methods of investigation, their theories of explanation, and their claims of originality. •Sociologists usually publish their writings as articles in scholarly journals, in chapters in books, or as full-length books. These writings are screened by editors and critics hired to evaluate the merits of the work.

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